Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) ist eine komplexe Vollkontaktsportart mit klaren Regeln und keine Deshalb ist der Sport bis heute höchst umstritten. Die Sportart ist in Deutschland höchst umstritten – Mixed Martial Arts wird vor allem Die weltweit größte MMA-Organisation „Ultimate Fighting. Die Ausübung eines solchen Sports an sich sagt noch nicht alles über das Die Kampfsportart Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) ist sehr umstritten.
Was ist eigentlich Mixed Martial Arts?Populär geworden ist MMA Anfang der er Jahre durch die Organisation Ultimate Fighting. Es gibt viele Kampfsportarten auf der Welt. Und es gibt Mixed Martial Arts (MMA). Abgeleitet vom brasilianischen Vale tudo ("alles geht") wurde. Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) ist eine komplexe Vollkontaktsportart mit klaren Regeln und keine Deshalb ist der Sport bis heute höchst umstritten.
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Kicking and hitting a downed opponent were allowed; only biting and eye gouging were forbidden. A match ended when one of the fighters acknowledged defeat or was rendered unconscious.
In some cases, competitors died during matches. Pankration became one of the most popular events of the ancient Olympics. In ce Roman emperor Theodosius I banned the Olympic Games, spelling the end of pankration as a popular sport.
MMA first came to the attention of many in North America after the Gracie family decided to showcase its trademark Brazilian jujitsu in the United States in the s.
The earliest aim of the UFC events was to pit fighters of different styles against each other—such as wrestler against boxer and kickboxer against judoka.
Initially, the only rules decreed no biting and no eye gouging. Bouts ended when one of the fighters submitted or one corner threw in the towel.
That number increased to , by the third event. The UFC initially marketed its product as a no-holds-barred sport in which anything could happen. Its brutality raised the ire of many, including such politicians as U.
In new UFC management created rules to make the sport less dangerous. It added weight classes, rounds, and time limits and extended the list of fouls in the ring.
The revamped UFC no longer featured mostly brawlers. Newer fighters were more skilled as boxers, wrestlers, and martial arts practitioners, and they were forced to train extensively and remain in peak condition to perform well.
Although the UFC struggled to make money in its early years, it eventually developed into a highly profitable organization.
The techniques utilized in mixed martial arts competition generally fall into two categories: striking techniques such as kicks , knees , punches and elbows and grappling techniques such as clinch holds , pinning holds , submission holds , sweeps , takedowns and throws.
Today, mixed martial artists must cross-train in a variety of styles to counter their opponent's strengths and remain effective in all the phases of combat.
Sprawl-and-Brawl is a stand-up fighting tactic that consists of effective stand-up striking, while avoiding ground fighting , typically by using sprawls to defend against takedowns.
This is a form which is heavily practiced in the amateur leagues. These fighters will often study submission wrestling to avoid being forced into submission should they find themselves on the ground.
This style can be deceptively different from traditional kickboxing styles, since sprawl-and-brawlers must adapt their techniques to incorporate takedown and ground fighting defense.
Ground-and-pound is a strategy consisting of taking an opponent to the ground using a takedown or throw, obtaining a top, or dominant grappling position , and then striking the opponent, primarily with fists, hammerfists , and elbows.
Ground-and-pound is also used as a precursor to attempting submission holds. The style is used by fighters well-versed in submission defense and skilled at takedowns.
They take the fight to the ground, maintain a grappling position, and strike until their opponent submits or is knocked out.
Although not a traditional style of striking, the effectiveness and reliability of ground-and-pound has made it a popular tactic.
While most fighters use ground-and-pound statically, by way of holding their opponents down and mauling them with short strikes from the top position, a few fighters manage to utilize it dynamically by striking their opponents while changing positions, thus not allowing their opponents to settle once they take them down.
Cain Velasquez is one of the most devastating ground strikers in MMA and is known for continuing to strike his opponents on the ground while transitioning between positions.
He was striking his opponents on the ground while passing guard , or while his opponents were attempting to recover guard.
In the year , MMA play-by-play commentator Stephen Quadros coined the popular phrase lay and pray. This refers to a situation where a wrestler or grappler keeps another fighter pinned or controlled on the mat to avoid a stand up, yet exhibits little urgency to finish the grounded opponent with a knockout or a submission for the majority or entirety of the fight.
This style is considered by many fans as the most boring style of fighting and is highly criticized for intentionally creating non-action, yet it is effective.
Some argue that 'lay-and-pray' is justified and that it is the responsibility of the downed fighter to be able to protect himself from this legitimate fighting technique.
Submission-Seeking is a reference to the strategy of taking an opponent to the ground using a takedown or throw and then applying a submission hold , forcing the opponent to submit.
While grapplers will often work to attain dominant position, some may be more comfortable fighting from other positions. If a grappler finds themselves unable to force a takedown, they may resort to pulling guard , whereby they physically pull their opponent into a dominant position on the ground.
Submissions are an essential part of many disciplines, most notably Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu , catch wrestling , judo , Sambo , and shootwrestling.
Clinch-Fighting is a tactic consisting of using a clinch hold to prevent the opponent from moving away into more distant striking range, while also attempting takedowns and striking the opponent using knees , stomps , elbows , and punches.
The clinch is often utilized by wrestlers and Judokas that have added components of the striking game typically boxing , and Muay Thai fighters. Wrestlers and Judoka may use clinch fighting as a way to neutralize the superior striking skills of a stand-up fighter or to prevent takedowns by a superior ground fighter.
Ronda Rousey , with her Judo background, is considered a master at initiating throws from the clinch to set up armbars.
The clinch or "plum" of a Muay Thai fighter is often used to improve the accuracy of knees and elbows by physically controlling the position of the opponent.
Anderson Silva is well known for his devastating Muay Thai clinch. In their rematch Silva repeated this and won again.
Other fighters may use the clinch to push their opponent against the cage or ropes, where they can effectively control their opponent's movement and restrict mobility while striking them with punches to the body or stomps also known as dirty boxing or "Wall and Maul".
Randy Couture used his Greco Roman wrestling background to popularize this style en route to six title reigns in the Ultimate Fighting Championship.
Especially used by fighters with strong wrestling background when facing a highly skilled grappler, or by wrestlers who prefer stand-up fights.
Usually fighters who adopt this strategy use takedowns only for scoring , allowing the adversary to stand up and continue the fight.
They also want to land clear strikes and control the octagon. In order to win the fight by decision all score oriented fighters have to have strong defensive techniques and avoid takedowns.
In general, fighters who cannot win fights through lightning offense, or are more suited to win fights in the later rounds or via decision are commonly known as grinders.
Grinders aim to shut down their opponent's game plan and chip away at them via clinching, smothering and ground-and-pound for most of the rounds.
While mixed martial arts is primarily a male dominated sport, it does have female athletes. In Japan, female competition has been documented since the mids.
Influenced by female professional wrestling and kickboxing , the Smackgirl competition was formed in and became the only major all-female promotion in mixed martial arts.
Aside from all-female organizations, most major Japanese male dominated promotions have held select female competitions. In the United States, prior to the success of The Ultimate Fighter reality show that launched mixed martial arts into the mainstream media, [ citation needed ] there was no major coverage of female competitions.
Outside Japan and the United States , female competition is almost exclusively found in minor local promotions.
Following Zuffa's acquisition of Strikeforce in March ,     the UFC began promoting women's fights, with Ronda Rousey rapidly becoming one of the promotion's biggest draws.
The case became a centerpiece of debates concerning whether it was fair to have a transgender woman compete against cisgender women in a contact sport.
Amateur Mixed Martial Arts is the amateur version of the Mixed Martial Arts in which participants engage largely or entirely without remuneration.
Mixed Martial Arts competitions have changed dramatically since the first Ultimate Fighting Championship in , specifically with the inception of the Unified Rules of Mixed Martial Arts.
There remains a paucity of data on injuries that occur in MMA, and resulting concerns with regard to MMA's safety remain. A recent systematic review concluded that the injury incidence rate in MMA appears to be greater than in most, if not all, other popular and commonly practiced combat sports.
In a meta-analysis of the available injury data in MMA, the injury incidence rate was estimated to be In general, the injury pattern in MMA is very similar to that in professional boxing but unlike that found in other combat sports such as judo and taekwondo.
In preliminary results reported in April as part of an ongoing study of a professional boxers and MMA fighters being conducted by Dr.
Charles Bernick and his colleagues at Cleveland Clinic's Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health, fighters with more than six years of ring experience were observed to have reductions in size in their hippocampus and thalamus, while fighters with more than twelve years of ring experience were observed to have both reductions in size and symptoms such as memory loss the hippocampus and thalamus deal with memory and alertness.
Bernick speculates that the cumulative damage over time from lesser blows may eventually prove an even more important topic of study than that of infrequent concussions.
There have been seven known deaths in MMA to date. Since , there have been six fatalities in mixed martial arts matches. The first was the death of Sam Vasquez on November 30, The second death stemming from a sanctioned mixed martial arts contest occurred in South Carolina on June 28, , when year-old Michael Kirkham was knocked out and never regained consciousness.
He was pronounced dead two days after the fight. No evidence of brain trauma or concussion was found and the initial autopsy has proved inconclusive.
Coroner Rae Wooten explained that his death may likely have been from an irregular heartbeat caused by over exertion; however whether or not his death was a direct result of his fight remains a mystery.
He was unable to make a recovery, and after one week in the hospital he was pronounced dead. The Portuguese fighter was beaten by technical knockout in a fight on 9 April against Charlie Ward , and fell ill twenty minutes after the fight.
He was taken immediately to Beaumont hospital, where he underwent emergency brain surgery, but died two days later.
On July 15, after a TKO loss resulting from unanswered punches in the second round of his fight, 37 year old Donshay White became unresponsive and collapsed in his locker room and was rushed to the KentuckyOne Health Sts.
MMA in Australia is permitted in all States and Territories of Australia by various combat sports authorities and organizations.
There is debate about the use of the cage, which was banned in Victoria in  and then relegalized in MMA is legal in Bahrain.
MMA is tolerated in Belgium but not supported. Active in developing MMA in Belgium from , the group later redefined their activities to include MMA in order to be able to use a cage.
Registered as a federation in Belgium in , the former Belgian Shooto and MMA Federation organized more than MMA bouts Amateur, B class and A class , and built a structure for the sport nationally that included insurance, rules and regulation, and experience levels for fighters and technical seminars.
Appearing on professional basis around —, MMA is a new sport in Bulgaria and growing rapidly. With a strong wrestling and boxing culture in the region, general interest in the sport is huge.
However, it remains unregulated. The federation's registration to the Ministry of Justice was approved in June and its application for formal recognition by the Ministry of Sport is in its advanced stages.
Television channel MYTV holds its KWC promotion under the sanctioning of the Cambodian Boxing Federation, responsible for sanctioning all boxing and Kun Khmer events in the country, in direct contrast to the situation in neighbouring Thailand.
For many years, professional MMA competitions were illegal in Canada. Section 83 2 of the Canadian Criminal Code deemed that only boxing matches where only fists are used are considered legal.
The bill formally gives provinces the power to create athletic commissions to regulate and sanction professional mixed martial arts bouts.
In Denmark, Mixed Martial Arts may be practiced but is not an official or legally regulated sport. The Federation was publicly launched on Friday November 24, inviting Danish MMA organizations, gyms and academies to sign up as members.
The CNMMA had worked over four years to put an educational structure in place, including a technical system for the safe progression from grass-roots level, all the way up to the top professional level.
There exist multiple bodies of association and federations which offer services to organize Mixed martial Arts events across India. MMA competition has been legal in Japan since at least the mids, when Pancrase fights began to be held.
The federation comprises representatives of ten states out of fourteen in Malaysia. In Norway, professional MMA is illegal.
In the "Merkekamper" concept was introduced by the NMMAF, with government sanctioning, which enables member MMA gyms to hold events with sparring matches, but governed by strict rules concerning how hard a fighter is permitted to strike.
This is in line with government requirements for all sport federations in Portugal which stipulates that they consist of at least three associated, non-profit groups.
Based in Bucharest, Romania AGON club was founded in its present legal form in June , following a long period of time of acting under different other organisations, with Gheorghe Stanciu elected as its president.
Many major international MMA fights are held at stadiums in Taiwan every year. Additionally, many martial arts schools and gyms in Taiwan provide professional level MMA training.
In , the Sports Authority of Thailand banned competitions. Jussi Saloranta, the owner of Thailand's only MMA promotion, DARE Fight Sports, revealed that his lawyers found that the ban was actually premature, and that from a legal standpoint, there is no law banning mixed martial arts in the country, suggesting that the SAT's ban was more of a scare tactic.
DARE continue to showcase events, informing fans only at the last minute through texts on the day of the event, and presenting the videos on YouTube as The Most Dangerous Gameshow.
Dare Fight Sports is currently the only MMA organization in Thailand to be officially sanctioned and publicized by the tourism authority of Thailand , although there are new MMA organizations appearing around the country.
Montana has a state athletic commission, although it does not regulate MMA. However, MMA is legal in both states.
West Virginia became the 44th state to regulate mixed martial arts on March 24, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the fighting styles that combine arts, see Hybrid martial arts.
For other uses, see MMA disambiguation. Full contact combat sport. Junior dos Santos vs. Main article: List of professional MMA training camps.
Main article: Mixed martial arts rules. See also: Sports rating system. Main article: Brazilian jiu-jitsu. Main article: Wrestling. Main articles: Muay Thai and Kickboxing.
Main article: Boxing. Main article: Catch wrestling. Main article: Judo. Main article: Karate. Main article: Luta Livre. Main article: Sambo martial art.
Main article: Sanshou. Main article: Taekwondo. Main article: Capoeira. Main article: Women's mixed martial arts.
Main article: Fatalities in mixed martial arts contests. This section may be too long to read and navigate comfortably.
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Retrieved May 26, Walter, Jr. You got a problem with that? Eddie Goldman does. Par Amy Silverman.
Ed Wedding. Voir le chapitre NAC Dedge's death inevitably brings up the issue of safety in NHB. MMA mixed martial arts events are inherently dangerous.
Death, which is not uncommon in many other "safer" athletics, is inevitable in NHB. Those who tout NHB as a safer sport than boxing should take note of the following: Kevin Neuendorf, a media and public relations assistant at USA Boxing, the governing organization for U.
And these are only amateur bouts. The number of pro boxing fights around the world very likely far exceeds this number.